Artificial Insemination


Originally Artificial insemination is used on livestock. But now artificial insemination has also been adapted for human use. It is the procedure of direct insertion of semen into a woman's womb, or it can also be said as insertion sperm directly into a fallopian tube, woman's cervix or uterus

The sperm used for Artificial insemination could originate from the woman's male partner or in the case of a woman in a same-sex relationship or a single female. It can help couples who haven't been able to get pregnant.

There are different types of artificial insemination procedures:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI), (most common today)
  • Intrauterine tuboperitoneal insemination (IUTPI)
  • Intracervical insemination (ICI) or intravaginal insemination
  • Intratubal insemination (ITI)

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): 

"When doctor places the sperm in the uterus." It is the most used method of artificial insemination, and Intrauterine Insemination has the best success rate.

Why is artificial insemination used?

12 percentage of women aged 15 to 44 years In the United States are unable to have a baby after one year of having unprotected sex.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise that a female need to take into account seeing infertility doctor discuss treatment if she has not conceived within twelve months of trying to or had miscarriages.

Couple that has healthy sperm and eggs but are unable to have intercourse, possibly due to a disability, like erectile dysfunction.

In women with cervical factor ( relating to the narrow neck-like passage forming the lower end of the womb )  infertility, either the cervix does not produce the mucus that facilitates sperm tour to the womb, or the mucus has a substance that kills the sperm. Synthetic insemination can assist to skip this trouble.

Endometriosis root the cells from the womb lining start to growing outside the womb in the ovaries or the fallopian tubes.

A female may have an allergic reaction to a certain protein in the sperm. With artificial insemination, particular protein ( from which woman is allergic ) can be removed before inserting the sperm.

Some men are not able to produce enough sperm for successful fertilization that can move effectively towards the egg.


The procedure of artificial insemination:

  • Physical examination:

To begin the procedure of artificial insemination, both you and your male partner will have all the necessary physical examination.

Your partner should avoid sex for 2 to 5 days before the procedure to help make sure sperm count of your male partner (or your potential donor) is high.  
The sperm must be "washed" within 1 hour of ejaculation in a laboratory.

Then the doctor will do a sperm analysis. The doctor can also bypass extracting sperm from the bladder. If your partner has ejaculation problems after. After completing the analysis, the doctor can then use this sperm during the procedure of artificial insemination.

  • Fertility drugs:

The doctor may prescribe fertility drugs like Clomid or injectables before the procedure of artificial insemination. Combining hormone treatment with IUI seems to give a better chance at pregnancy to couples.

Human chorionic gonadotropin may also be administered before the procedure of artificial insemination to trigger ovulation. The insertion of your male partner's (or your potential donor) sperm should then be done within 24-36 hours after this injection.

If you are taking fertility medications, you will be kept monitored with ultrasounds and blood tests to make sure that the eggs are getting developed in a healthy way.

  • Insertion of the semen sample:

The artificial insemination is a painless procedure. When the artificial insemination procedure begins, you will lie down as you normally would for a pelvic exam. A speculum is ( an instrument used to keep the walls of the vagina open ) will be inserted. The sperm is put directly with a catheter into the uterus. Through the cervix, the catheter enters the uterus. Artificial insemination is normally carried out just after the woman has ovulated. This is when a female is most fertile, as the eggs have just been produced.
Approximately women ovulate two weeks after the 1st day of the monthly period.

The doctor may give the woman an (ovulation prediction kit). It is a device that detects hormone levels in the urine or saliva thus giving an accurate prediction of when a female is going to ovulate.

For the woman going with ICI artificial insemination procedure, the sperm will be placed into the vagina and is deposited into the cervix with a soft catheter. 

Risks factors of artificial insemination:

Few risks that are associated with artificial insemination.

Multiple births can occur if artificial insemination is a combination with fertility medication, like gonadotrophin. There is a greater chance of a female giving birth to twins or triplets. Multiple births increase the chances of complications such as miscarriage or premature birth.

Fertility medication is normally nowadays, used only in the cases where the cause of infertility is endometriosis.

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or (OHSS) can cause a woman's ovaries to swell if artificial insemination is a combination with fertility medication. This is rare and symptoms are usually mild, but it can sometimes be serious. It includes slight abdominal pain, bloating, possibly nausea, chest pain, vomiting, dehydration and shortness of breath. Drinking fluids and taking paracetamol normally alleviates the pain.

Artificial Insemination success rate:

15.8% - 35 years
11.0% - 35-39 years
4.7% - 40-42 years
1.2% - 43-44 years
0% - 44 years

In the next article you can also read about How much does Artificial Insemination cost?

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